Learning can be defined as a persistent change in the subject’s behavior and as a result of experience. Do not confuse learning with memorization, since memory is only one part of the learning process. On the other hand, learning does not happen simply because of experience, but rather a series of prerequisites are necessary for it to occur. These prerequisites are cognitive functions with a neurological substrate with which the child is not born, but will develop them as they go through different phases of their evolution.


Important aspects in the learning process

  • Neuro-ophthalmological development. This includes, on the one hand, the development of visual acuity. This development will be essential for the acquisition of visual perception and eye-hand coordination. On the other hand, there is the development of the power of convergence, and thanks to the accommodation of the lens, this convergence will take place. Around 5-6 months of life, the lens is further away than in the adult and it will prevent him from analyzing objects that he has in his hand.
  • Perceptual-visual development . This development, in part, will depend on the neuro-ophthalmology and also on other factors, such as the integration of different stimuli and their supposed relationship with what is stored in memory to reach the knowledge of the outside world. Therefore, visual perceptual development is essential for the development of learning.
  • Auditory development It is also essential for the development of learning, not only because it allows the knowledge of the outside world through auditory stimuli, but also because it allows the development of rhythmic structures and linguistic development.
  • Language development . It is of great importance in the learning process, because in addition to allowing communicative behaviors, thanks to it verbal thinking is developed in which language provides a symbolic code necessary for the elaboration of concepts. For language to develop, it is necessary, among other things, a correct sensory-auditory, perceptual-auditory development, development of the sequential temporal orientation, and the integration of the phonatory and articulatory organs.

Around the age of 6, the child acquires reading , which will allow him to access the graphic information contained in books. The development of reading is also important because it will allow the child to develop study and learning in themselves. In order for reading to be developed, an adequate level of intelligence , an adequate development of language , visual acuity, perceptual-visual acuity and spatial orientation will be necessary .

Although the development of reading and writing are practically simultaneous and enhance each other, reading is always something prior to writing. The importance of writing in the learning process is similar to that of reading, to which it is always linked, but for the development of writing, the development of basic motor behaviors , static and dynamic coordination, and coordination is necessary. oculus-manual , the development of the hand gripper function and the essential process that is automation, since it allows us to focus our attention on what we write and not on how we do it.

For effective learning to take place, proper development and control of attention is very important. Attention is the process of concentration of consciousness on a specific field and serves to delimit the perceptual field, favor the elaboration of memories and establish associations. There are different levels of attention, among which we find involuntary attention, affective attention or emotional life, and voluntary attention.

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