After the American Psychological Association Convention held in 1948, the psychologist and pedagogue Benjamin Bloom presented a classification aimed at the objectives of the educational process composed of three “domains”. The first of these, called the cognitive domain, involves the knowledge and development of attitudes and intellectual abilities. The other domains are the affective domain and the psychomotor domain. Finally, Bloom and his co-workers also established a hierarchy for these educational objectives, which is called Bloom’s Taxonomy and which attempts to divide the so-called cognitive objectives.

Benjamin Bloom also created this taxonomy to categorize the level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings, providing a useful structure for classifying test questions. In this way, teachers can ask questions for their exams tailored to particular levels, and this leads to better design of the most appropriate study strategies.


Some positive elements of Bloom’s taxonomy

  • Improve skills.
  • Enhance skills.
  • Mastering subjects.
  • Acquire the knowledge of the main ideas.
  • Reinforce knowledge of dates, events, places.
  • Improve observation and information retrieval.


Main categories in the taxonomy of educational objectives

  1. Knowledge

Knowledge is defined as the recall of previously learned material . This can involve a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, and the goal is to remember the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning and the one that requires the least processing power. In this category, knowledge is defined as the ability to recall appropriate and previously learned information.

Examples of learning objectives at this level are: know common terms, know specific facts, know methods and procedures, know basic concepts, know principles …

The terminology, in turn, would be the following ( verbs that illustrate results ): define, describe, enumerate, identify, label, read, reproduce, select …


  1. Understanding

Comprehension is defined as the ability to understand the meaning of the material . The results go one step beyond simply recalling the material and represent the lowest level of understanding. This category is defined by the ability to understand the meaning of informational materials.

Examples of learning objectives at this level are: understand facts and principles, verbally interpret material , interpret tables and graphs, translate verbal material into mathematical formulas, or justify methods and procedures.

Comprehension terminology: classify; quote; turn into; describe; argue; estimate; explain; generalize; exemplify; repeat; summarize…


  1. Application

The application refers to the ability to use the material learned in new and concrete situations . This can include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories… Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding. This category is defined by the use of previously learned information in new and concrete situations to solve problems.

Examples of learning objectives at this level are: apply concepts and principles to new situations, apply laws and theories to practical situations, solve mathematical problems , make graphs, or demonstrate the correct use of a method or procedure.

Terminology in this category: to do; manage; articulate; evaluate; collect; compute; build; control; decide; develop; discover; establish; implement; report; instruct; take part; predict; prepare; produce; relate; to show; resolve…


teoría de bloom



  1. Analysis

Analysis refers to the ability to break down the material so that its organizational structure can be understood. This may include identifying parties, analyzing the relationship between the parties, and recognizing the organizing principles involved. The results here represent a higher intellectual level than understanding and application, because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. This category is defined by breaking down informational materials into parts, examining and trying to understand the organizational structure of such information in order to develop divergent conclusions.

Examples of learning objectives at this level are: recognizing undeclared assumptions, reasoning logically , distinguishing between facts and inferences, assessing the relevance of data, analyzing the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing), etc.

Terminology in this category: break; correlate; differentiate; discriminate; distinguish; focus; to illustrate; interfere; limit; point; prioritize; recognize; to coordinate; subdivide…


  1. Synthesis

Synthesis refers to the ability to unite parts to form a new whole . This may involve the production of a single communication (topic or speech), an operations plan (research proposal), or a set of abstract relationships (scheme for classifying information). This category is defined by creatively or divergent application of previous knowledge and skills to produce a new or original whole different from what has been learned.

Some examples of learning objectives at this level are: write a well-organized topic; give a good organization to the speech that is written or elaborate a creative short story (poem or music); propose a plan for an experiment; integrate and learn from different areas; solve a problem ; formulate schemes …

Terminology in this category: adapt; anticipate; categorize; to collaborate; to combine; communicate; compare; compile; to compose; create; design; formulate; to incorporate; individualize; Start; to integrate; to intervene; Modify; negotiate; to plan; progress; rebuild; reinforce or revise.


  1. Evaluation

Evaluation refers to the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. Judgments must be based on defined criteria. These can be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to purpose), and the student can determine the criteria or receive them. The learning outcomes in this area are higher in the cognitive domain because they contain elements from all other categories, that is, more conscious value judgments. This category is defined by the action of judging the value of the material based on personal values and / or opinions, resulting in a final product with a specific purpose, with no real right or wrong answers.

Examples of learning objectives at this level are: judging the logical consistency of written material , judging the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data, or judging the value of a work (art, music, writing).

Terminology in this category: assess; compare; to contrast; conclude; to criticize; decide; define; interpret; justify; stake out; support…

Leave a Reply