The child to learn to read correctly goes through four phases:

  • Logographic: the child identifies logos, images with words. He knows marks and symbols by his drawing.
  • Alphabetical: begin to match the letters with their sound. He becomes familiar with the alphabet and can read phonemes and even syllables.
  • Spelling: already recognizes groups of letters and words. Start reading.
  • Fluent-expressive: at this point the child reads perfectly respecting the punctuation, representing the reading and understanding what he reads.


However, difficulties may appear in the progress of these stages.

It must be ruled out that the reading delay has nothing to do with hearing or visual problems, that there are no physical characteristics that may affect the learning of reading, emotional or neurological disorders, in addition to the fact that the child has a normal IQ.

Once all this has been verified, we can see what type of irregularity it presents in its way of reading and treating it as recommended by the experts.  


Main disorders in learning to read

  • Deficient or dyslexic reading: Letters, syllables or words are confused or omitted. The order of these is altered or they make a mistake in the sound of similar letters.
  • Bradylexic reading: The child reads without errors but very slowly.
  • Shorthand reading: Read too fast.
  • Dysrhythmic reading: Does not respect pauses or order, or those worthy of punctuation. Read at times fast and at times slowly.
  • Mnesic reading: The child learns the text by heart from hearing it so much and seems to read, but as soon as a specific part is pointed out, he does not know, because in reality he cannot read.
  • Imaginary reading: Here the child, based on the drawings or similar, invents the story without matching any words, but as if reading.
  • Dragged reading: Due to difficulties in global perception, they do not manage to correctly obtain the whole of the reading and they take time reading to assimilate the entire text.
  • Repeated reading: The first syllables of words are repeated.
  • Silent repeated reading: He repeats the syllables but to himself, in a low voice.
  • Mixed reading: Combines silent and dragged reading.


These disorders are detected with a test that will assess your reading ability always taking into account the child’s age and training. It is done by reading letters, syllables, texts with and without drawings, in printed and handwritten letters.

Based on the results, it is established whether the child has any reading problems that must be corrected.

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