14 pedagogical principles that every teacher should know

The pedagogical principles are essential conditions for the implementation of the curriculum, the transformation of teaching practice, the achievement of learning and the improvement of educational quality.


Focus on the learning process

  • Likewise, they must understand the ways in which each student learns , favoring the construction of valuable knowledge in contrast to the “rote” or “mechanical” ones.
  • In order to put the student at the center of their practice, the teacher has to promote their full involvement in their learning, so that they are an active learner .
  • This Proposal recognizes the student as an essential part and the reason for being of the teaching practice

Take into account the student’s previous knowledge

  • The teacher must recognize that the student does not arrive in the classroom “blank” and that to learn requires “connecting” the new learning with the pre-existing ones , built throughout their experience.
  • Teaching must be anchored in the student’s prior knowledge , recognizing that such knowledge is not necessarily the same for everyone. For this reason, the teacher must encourage the student to express their concepts and proposals, as part of the learning process; This way you will be able to know the skills, attitudes and values of the students and use them as a starting point in the design of the class.
  • By identifying the degree of mastery that students have over the teaching content, the teacher will be able to gauge whether it will make sense to them, because:
  • The content is not too trivial or is too far removed from what they already know
  • The student understands what the content is for and what its function is
  • This content allows them to rectify mistakes and expand what has been previously learned

Design didactic situations that promote situated learning

  • The teacher has to seek that the student learns in circumstances that bring him closer to reality , simulating different ways of learning that originate in everyday life, in the context in which he is immersed, within the framework of his own culture.
  • The pedagogical challenge lies in making the school a social place of knowledge, where students face “authentic” circumstances. Learning based on real problems is a methodology that promotes situated learning, making it useful and lasting.
  • Situated learning puts the learning activity at the center, because it is during the activity that learning occurs .

Recognize the social nature of knowledge

  • As the research shows, social interaction is irreplaceable in the construction of knowledge. It is essential to promote collaboration and foster environments in which group work is central.
  • Cooperative work allows learners to discuss and exchange ideas, for the more advanced students to contribute to the formation of their peers, and it offers the conditions for the emotional development necessary to learn to cooperate and live in community.
  • The learner must know that he shares the responsibility of learning with the teacher and with the other learners in the class.

Give strong weight to the intrinsic motivation of the student

  • The teacher has to design strategies that make knowledge relevant , promote the student’s appreciation for himself, and for the relationships he establishes in the classroom with others and that allow him to learn.
  • Likewise, it should thereby encourage the student to take control of their learning process.
  • It is also necessary to promote metacognitive questioning so that the student knows and reflects on the learning strategies used, in order to achieve improvements in their use.

Promote the culture of learning

  • Teaching must favor individual and collective learning . It must encourage the learner to establish learning relationships, to communicate with others to continue learning and thereby support the mutual purpose of building knowledge and improving both individual and collective achievements.
  • It must give the learner opportunities to learn from mistake, to rethink, reconsider, and redo; encourage the development of intermediate products and create opportunities for copious peer feedback.
  • It is important to make children and young people aware of their learning . Giving the learner a voice in their learning process and recognizing their right to be involved in it, cultivating their active participation and their capacity for self-knowledge.
  • Encourage students to learn to regulate their emotions, impulses and motivations in the learning process ; to set personal goals and monitor them; to manage time, study strategies and interact with others to promote relevant learning.
  • The autonomy of the apprentice must be fostered and, with it, the development of a repertoire of learning strategies, study habits, self-confidence and their ability to be responsible for their own learning.

Offer accompaniment to learning

  • To be effective, learning requires the accompaniment of both the teacher and other students. Teachers, librarians, parents and others involved in the formation of a student generate didactic activities and provide environments and social and cultural spaces conducive to the intellectual and emotional development of the learner.
  • The learning activities have to be organized in different ways, so that all students can access the knowledge . Due to the diversity of needs and learning styles, barriers to learning and participation must be eliminated.
  • -Before removing the accompaniment, the teacher has to ensure the solidity of the learning.

Recognize the existence and value of informal learning

  • Today you don’t just learn at school; children and young people have various sources of information to meet their needs and interests.
  • School education must consider the existence and importance of these informal learning. Teachers have to investigate and encourage students’ interest in learning in different media.
  • One way to show the learner the value of this learning is to look for teaching strategies to incorporate it properly into the classroom. Formal and informal learning must coexist and be incorporated into the same cognitive structure.

Promote interdisciplinary relationship

  • Teaching must promote the relationship between disciplines, areas of knowledge and subjects .
  • The information available today on how complex knowledge structures are created – from basic “pieces” of learning that are organized in a certain way – allows us to work to create knowledge structures that are transferred to disciplinary fields and new situations. This adaptability mobilizes learning and enhances its usefulness in the knowledge society.

Understand evaluation as a process related to planning

  • The assessment does not seek to measure rote knowledge . It is a process that results from applying a variety of instruments and the aspects to be estimated.
  • The evaluation of learning takes into account three variables: didactic situations, student activities and content.
  • The evaluation starts from planning , since both are two sides of the same coin: when planning teaching, based on the zone of proximal development of the students, proposing options that allow everyone to learn and progress from where they are, the teacher it defines the expected learning and the evaluation will measure whether a student achieves them.
  • Evaluation is part of the didactic sequence as an integral element of the pedagogical process, so it is not exclusively conclusive or summative.
  • The evaluation seeks to know how students organize, structure and use their learning in specific contexts to solve problems of different levels of complexity and of a diverse nature.
  • The evaluation contributes to cognitive self-regulation by providing feedback to the student with clear and constructive arguments about their performance.

Overcome the vision of discipline as mere compliance with rules

  • At school, room must be made for cognitive and moral self-regulation.
  • Strategies must be offered that allow students to self-regulate to learn and to live together .
  • A safe, friendly, welcoming, collaborative and stimulating learning environment should be fostered, in which each child or young person is valued and feels safe and free.

Modeling learning

  • Teachers will be role models for their students , so they must be seen executing the behaviors they want to promote in them, both in front of their students and sharing the activities with them.
  • They have to read, write, look for information, analyze it, generate conjectures and carry out any other practice that they consider that, as learners, their students must develop.
  • The teacher will execute the learning strategies by identifying aloud the procedures that he performs and will be aware of the “scaffolding of thought” function that language fulfills in this modeling.

  Show interest in the interests of your students

  • Teaching implies establishing a human relationship par excellence that requires the teacher to establish a close relationship with the learner, who knows about their interests and their particular circumstances.
  • This proximity will allow you to better plan teaching, as well as seek contextualizations that invite learners to become more involved in their learning.

Revalue and redefine the role of the teacher

Far from being the transmitter of knowledge, in this Proposal the teacher becomes a mediator who:

  • Guide the constructive activity of the students.
  • It creates the conditions for each student to achieve useful and lasting learning.
  • It encourages each student to develop the ability to organize their learning.
  • It integrates ICT into its practice, as a means to support the achievement of expected learning.
  • Spread the enjoyment of learning and continuing to learn.
  • Be alert to factors that may inhibit student learning.
  • He reflects on his teaching practice to determine whether the didactic situation is an inhibitor or promoter of student learning and development.

Source: Curricular Proposal for Compulsory Education.

Thank you for sharing valuable information that will facilitate my work in the classroom and strengthen basic knowledge that every teacher must handle.

Post a reply

Thank you for sharing valuable information that will be a support to improve my teaching performance.

Post a reply


Post a reply

Leave a Reply